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  Numarul 1/2022

Volumul 13 (2022), Nr. 1

Studiu de caz privind evaluarea dioxidului de carbon în casele mici modulare
Case Study Regarding the Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide in Modular Tiny Houses
Carmen Marza, Georgiana Corsiuc, Dana Adriana Ilutiu-Varvara

Indoor air quality plays an important role both in the well-being of occupants as well in the efficiency of the performed activities - either they are of an intellectual or physical nature. In this paper, after a general presentation of the main pollutants of indoor air environment, the authors have proposed a study, based on experimental measurements, about the concentration of carbon dioxide in a tiny house, that is part of a larger Start Up Nation project, which proposed several types of prefabricated modular constructionst.

Keywords: Air Quality, Modular Buildings, Pollutants, Carbon Dioxide

Modelarea numerica a campului de temperatura 2D intr-o sectiune patrata, in regim termic stationar, utilizand aplicatia software Microsoft Excel®
Steady state two-dimensional heat conduction in a square cross section, by using Microsoft Excel® for numerical modeling
Gelu-Adrian CHISALITA, Peter KAPALO

Lucrarea prezinta o modalitate de studiu si analiza numerica a campului de temperatura 2D într-o sectiune de forma patrata a unei grinzi. A fost construit si utilizat pentru studiu un nou instrument software, folosind ca metoda de calcul principala metoda calculului cu diferente finite (MDF). A fost considerat transferul termic în regim stationar, printr-un corp fara surse interioare de caldura si aplicate conditiile la limita de specia 1 (Dirichlet) privind valorile temperaturilor pe suprafetele delimitatoare ale corpului. Rezolvarea sistemului de ecuatii liniare (SEL) format a fost efectuata cu ajutorul instrumentului Solver din aplicatia software Microsoft Excel®, obtinand determinarea numerica a distributiei temperaturii în campul sectiunii patrate. Rezultatele numerice au fost transpuse si într-o forma grafica pentru o vizualizare mai intuitiva.

Cuvinte cheie: transfer, caldura, stationar, camp, distributie, temperatura, 2D, diferente, finite, sistem, ecuatii, liniare, Solver, Excel

The paper presents a simple way to study and numerically analyze the 2D temperature field in a square cross section of a beam. A new software tool was built and used for this study, using as the main calculation method the finite difference method (FDM). The steady state heat transfer through a body without internal heat sources was considered and the boundary conditions of the first kind (Dirichlet) were applied regarding the values of temperatures on the delimiting surfaces of the body. The solution of the linear equation system (LES) was obtained using the Solver tool from the Microsoft Excel® software application, finding the numerical image of the temperature distribution in the square cross section. Also, all the numerical results have been translated into a graphical form, for a more intuitive view.

Keywords: heat, transfer, steady state, temperature, 2D, finite difference, Solver, Excel

Materiale plastice incorporate in statie pilot de epurare
Plastic materials incorporated in a pilot wastewater treatment plant
Ioan-Alexandru FILIP

Lucrarea analizeaza utilizarea diferitelor tipuri de materiale plastice in procesul epurarii apei uzate dintr-o statie pilot amplasata in interiorul Statiei de Epurare a Apelor Uzate din Timisoara. S-a studiat comportamentul acestor materiale la actiunea apei uzate asupra acestora, respectiv avantajele si dezavantajele utilizarii acestora.

Cuvinte cheie: canalizare, ape uzate, epurare, polietilena, rasini epoxidice

Through the present paper it is analysed the use of different types of plastic materials in the process of wastewater treatment in a pilot wastewater treatment plant placed in the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant of Timişoara. It was studied the behaviour of these materials through the actions of wastewater upon them, respectively, the advantages and disadvantages of their usage.

Keywords: waste water, wastewater treatment, ployethylene, epoxy resins

Echilibrarea puterilor din sistemul energetic
Balancing the powers of the energy system
Dr.ing.Gheorghe VERTAN, Dr.ing. Adrian RETEZAN, Ing. Paul GIHORGHIESCU

Pentru o functionare de calitate, un sistem energetic - (SE) - mentine frecventa la o valoare etalon, prin echilibrarea continua si in timp real a sumei puterilor furnizate de producatori cu suma puterilor utilizate, care variaza conform nevoilor utilizatorilor. În acest scop se folosesc si hidrocentrale de acumulare prin pompaj (HCAP) - care, atunci cand frecventa este ridicata, cu energie preluata din SE pompeaza apa din lacuri joase in lacuri situate mai sus, iar cand frecventa este scazuta redau SE energie, turbinand apa din lacurile de sus in cele joase. Realizarea HCAP este costisitoare, iar utilizarea lor prezinta anual pierderi energetice mari, a caror amploare este ilustrata sugestiv in prezenta lucrare prin raportarea procentuala la intreaga energie electrica utilizata de Romania intr-un an. Aceste neajunsuri (costuri mari si pierderi energetice mari) impun cautarea unor metode noi, fara HCAP, de echilibrare a puterilor din SE.

Cuvinte cheie: system energetic, hidrocentrale

For quality operation, an energy system (SE) maintains the frequency at a standard value, by continuously and in real time balancing the amount of power provided by manufacturers with the amount of power used, which varies according to user needs. For this purpose, pumped storage hydropower plants (HCAP) are also used, which, when the frequency is high, with energy taken from SE pumps water from low lakes to lakes located above, and when the frequency is low they return SE energy, tubing water from the upper lakes in the lower ones. The realization of HCAP is expensive, and their use has high energy losses annually, the magnitude of which is suggestively illustrated in this paper by the percentage ratio to the entire electricity used by Romania in one year. These shortcomings (high costs and high energy losses) require the search for new methods, without HCAP, to balance the powers of the SE.

Keywords: energy system, hydropower plants

O scurta trecere in revista a sistemului de contorizare a energiei electrice dotat cu internet - Partea I Internetul obiectelor si domeniul energiei
A short overview of IoT based energy metering system Part I Internet of things and the energy sector
By Dr.fiz. Monica Sabina Crainic

Aceasta lucrare se concentreaza pe prezentarea unei tehnologii noi si moderne, si anume Internetul obiectelor (IoT). Pe langa definitia si istoria IoT in acest articol, prezentam pe scurt arhitectura si componentele sale esentiale, precum si avantajele si dezavantajele acestei noi tehnologii. Expertii in energie au aratat ca IoT ofera un numar mare de aplicatii in sectorul energetic, motiv pentru care, in ultima parte a acestei lucrari prezentam cateva aspecte privind aplicarea IoT in sectorul energetic.

Cuvinte cheie: internetul obiectelor, arhitectura IoT, xomponentele IoT, IoT pentru sectorul energetic

This paper focuses on the presentation of a new and modern technology, namely the Internet of Things (IoT). In addition to the definition and history of the IoT in this article we briefly present the architecture and its essential components as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. Energy experts have shown that the IoT offer a wide number of applications in the energy sector, For this reason in the last part of this paper we present some aspects regarding the application of IoT in the energy sector.

Keywords: internet of things, architecture of IoT, components of IoT, IoT for energy sector

O scurta trecere in revista a sistemului de contorizare a energiei electrice dotat cu internet Partea II Contoare inteligente de energie electrica dotate cu internet
A short overview of IoT based energy metering system Part II IoT smart energy meters
O problema foarte importanta atat pentru producatorii de energie electrica cat si pentru consumatori o constituie economisirea de energie electrica. Avand insa in vedere gama foarte variata de dispzitive si aparate electrice existente astazi pe piata este foarte dificil sa se cunoasca cata energie electrica se consuma de fapt la un moment dat [1], Contorul de energie electrica este un contor care ii ajuta pe consumatori sa-si cunoasca mai bine consumul zilnic de energie electrica pentru a controla mai bine utilizarea energiei elctrice, iar producatorii de energie electrica cu ajutorul contoarelor de energie electrica pot realize o gestonare mai eficienta a productiei de energie Una dintre cele mai moderne si importante metode de comunicare intre furnizorii de energie electrica si clientii lor este Internetul tuturor lucrurilor sau internetul obiectelor (IoT de la expresia din limba engleza Interner of Things), care este o tehnologie mobila, disponibila in intreaga lume. Tehnologia IoT este, de asemenea, ideala pentru transferul de date printr-o conexiune intotdeauna on-line intre o locatie centrala si dispozitive mobile. Prin urmare, in aceasta lucrare vom prezenta o scurta trecere in revista a contoarelor inteligente de energie electrica care sunt prevazute cu internetul obiectelor,

Cuvinte cheie: electricitate, contoare inteligente de enerhie electricam Internetul obiectelor , arduino

Saving energy is high on the agenda for consumers and businesses, but with most of the electrical devices today, it‘s difficult to know how much energy we are actually using at any given point in time [1]. Electrical energy meter is a meter which helps the consumers to know their day to day power consumption to better control their usage and producers to manage production, One of the main method of communication between utilities and customers is Internet of Things (IoT), which is a mobile technology, available all over the world. IoT technology is also ideally suitable for data transfer over an always on-line connection between a central location and mobile devices. Therefore in this paper we will present a short review about smart energy meters based on Internet of Things (IoT) applications.

Keywords: electricity, smart energy meter, Internet of Things (IoT), arduino

O scurta trecere in revista a sistemului de contorizare a energiei electrice dotat cu internet Partea III Sistem de detectare a furtului de energie electrica si generare a facturilor
A short overview of IoT based energy metering system Part III IoT based electricity theft detection and bill generating system
Dr.fiz. Monica Sabina Crainic

In aceasta lume conectata, dezvoltarea si utilizarea pe scara tot mai larga a dispozitivelor inteligente a condus la un nou inceput pentru comunicarea de tip masina - masina in orice moment si in orice loc. Pe masura ce inteligenta artificiala se raspandeste tot mai mult, aceasta conectivitate a creat o viziune cu totul aparte cu privire la internetului obiectelor (sau lucrurilor). Internetul lucrurilor a condus la aparitia unei retele virtuale intre om si lumea fizica formata din diverse lucruri, schimband astfel drastic modul in care functioneaza diverse afaceri. In acest context in lucrarea de mai jos se descrie un sistem de citire a contoarelor de energie electrica bazat pe internetul obiectelor si circuite integrate care contin microcontrolere cunoscute comercial sub numele de Arduino. In cadrul acestei lucrari prezentam de asemenea si un sistem de facturare a consumului de energie electrica la distanta. Acest proces de facturare este mai rapid si eficient dand astfel posibilitatea clientilor, sa poata plati facturile mai devreme.

Cuvinte cheie: furtul de energie electrica, internetul obiectelor (IoT), sistem de facturare

In this connected world, the development and widespread use of smart devices has led to a new beginning for machine-to-machine communication anytime and anywhere. As artificial intelligence spreads, this connectivity has created a completely different vision of the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT has led to the emergence of a virtual network between man and the physical world of various things, thus drastically changing the way various businesses operate. In this context, the paper below describes a system of reading electricity meters based on the IoT and integrated circuits containing microcontrollers known commercially as Arduino. In this paper we also present a remote electricity billing system. This billing process is faster and more efficient, enabling customers to pay their bills earlier.

Keywords: electricity theft, Internet of Things (IoT), billing system

Strategii energetice si de mediu in contextul schimbarilor climatice
Energy and environmental strategies in the context of climate change
Raluca MOLDOVAN, Gelu-Adrian CHISALITA

In contextul cresterii consumului energetic, al emisiilor de gaze cu efect de sera (GES) si al consecintelor tot mai grave asupra mediului, societatii si economiei, atat la nivel global, cat si european sau national, statele lumii iau masuri de combatere a efectelor schimbarilor climatice, prin stabilirea unor strategii si politici energetice si ecologice. Pornind de la angajamentul stabilit la nivel european de neutralizare a emisiilor nete de gaze cu efect de sera pana in anul 2050, lucrarea prezinta contextul energetic si ecologic al Romaniei la nivelul anului 2020, obiectivele energetice si ecologice pentru anul 2030 si masurile propuse pentru atingerea tintelor privind reducerea emisiilor de GES, imbunatatirea eficientei energetice si promovarea surselor regenerabile de energie.

Cuvinte cheie: gaze, efect de sera, emisie, neutralizare, strategie, energie, ecologie, mediu ambiant, schimbari climatice, Romania

In the current context of increasing energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the serious consequences for the environment, society and the economy, at global, European and national level, the countries of the world are taking measures to fight the effects of climate change by establishing energy and environmental strategies and policies. Starting from the commitment established at European level to neutralize net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, the paper presents the energy and ecological framework of Romania in 2020, the energy and ecological objectives for 2030 and the measures proposed to achieve the targets on reducing GHG emissions, improving energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy sources.

Keywords: greenhouse gas, GHG, emission, neutralization, strategy, energy, ecology, environment, climate change, Romania

Aspecte privind incalzirea si racirea in cladiri eficiente energetic folosind pompe de caldura
Aspects regarding heating and cooling in energy efficient buildings using heat pumps
Raluca MOLDOVAN, Gelu-Adrian CHISALITA

In contextul actual in care incalzirea si racirea reprezinta jumatate din consumul de energie in UE si sunt responsabile pentru 27% din emisiile de gaze cu efect de sera (GES), reducerea cererii de energie pentru incalzire si racire si cresterea ponderii energiei din surse regenerabile reprezinta elemente-cheie pentru indeplinirea obiectivelor UE in materie de clima si energie. Lucrarea prezinta potentialul sectorului de incalzire si racire de a imbunatati eficienta energetica si de a creste ponderea energiei din surse regenerabile, concentrandu-se pe promovarea cladirilor eficiente energetic si a pompelor de caldura. Folosind software-ul Casanova, autorii au propus pentru analiza o cladire pasiva-verde proiectata in conformitate cu standardul pasiv si folosind materiale ecologice, simuland cererea de incalzire si racire in diferite zone climatice, in contextul limitarii necesarului de incalzire si racire in casele pasive. În comparatie cu diferitele sisteme de incalzire, pentru orasul Bucuresti, simularile evidentiaza potentialul pompelor de caldura in reducerea consumului de energie finala si primara.

Cuvinte cheie: incalzire, racire, emisii, gaze cu efect de sera, eficienta energetica, pompa de caldura, ecologic, standard pasiv

In the current context in which heating and cooling accounts for half of the EU’s energy consumption and is responsible for 27% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, reducing the energy demand for heating and cooling and increasing the share of renewable energy represents key elements to fulfill the EU’s climate and energy goals. The paper presents the potential of the heating and cooling sector to improve energy efficiency and increase the share of energy from renewable sources, focusing on promoting energy efficient buildings and heat pumps. Using Casanova software, the authors have proposed for analysis a passive-green building designed according to passive standard and using environmentally friendly materials, simulating heating and cooling demand in different climate zone in the context of achieving passive house heating and cooling requirements. By comparing different heating systems, for Bucharest city, the simulations highlighted the potential of heat pumps in reducing the final and primary energy consumption.

Keywords: heating, cooling, greenhouse gas, emissions, energy efficiency, heat pump, ecological, passive standard

Eficientizarea iluminatului în amfiteatre
Efficiency of lighting for lecture halls
Sergiu Fodorean, Dorin Beu, Calin Ciugudeanu

Fluorescent tubes as well as LEDs have advantages and disadvantages, but it seems that the LED is starting to come out a winner in the attention of consumers. In this paper we present the advantages that are offered to us by using LED luminaires. WE do this by comparison between, three types of luminaire, 2xT8 36W fluorescent luminaire, 2xT5 28W electronic ballast luminaire and 36W LED luminaire. The measurements were made with new fluorescent lamps but also with fluorecent lamps that have already been used for a period (approx. 4800 hours). The LED luminaire used for the measurements were used for almost 1300 hours. We compared the measurements made with LED luminaire with the results obtained from measurements of the fluorescent lamps.In both cases even if I used old or new fluorescent luminaires, the results were in favor of LEDs, with a much higher energy efficency.

Keywords: LED, fluorescent luminaire, energy efficient, lighting, measurements

Intruziunile de radacini in conductele de canalizare
Root intrusions in sewer pipes
Teodor Valeriu Chira

Intruziunile de radacini in conductele de canalizare amplasate in subsolul oraselor reprezinta o defectiune destul de frecvent intalnita pe parcursul operatiunilor de diagnosticare imagistica. Este considerata o defectiune grava, care trebuie remediata intr-un timp relativ scurt, intrucat poate conduce chiar la colapsul conductei. Sunt prezentate cazurile in care apare acest tip de defectiune, cu exemple si ce metode de remediere exista

Cuvinte cheie: intruziuni de radacini, conducte de canalizare, diagnosticare imagistica

Root intrusions in sewer pipes buried in the subsoil of urban areas represent a common fault found during CCTV inspection of sewer mains. It is considered a serious fault which must be addressed in a short period of time, or else it can lead even to the collapse of the pipe. Manifestations of this type of fault are presented, with examples, along with the means of remediation.

Keywords: root intrusions, sewer mains, CCTV inspection

Studiu privind efectele negative ale deversărilor de ape uzate industriale
Study Regarding the Negative Effects of Industrial Wastewater Discharges
Cristina Iacob, Anagabriela Deac

The purpose of this article is to better comprehend the impact of industrial waste waters discharges on the water cycle, in order to better understand current trends and the magnitude of the environmental strain posed by industrial wastewaters. It also examines the various regulatory frameworks that restrict and influence industrial wastewater discharges. An assessment of industrial wastewater discharges in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is carried out, taking into account the types of monitored industrial units, the monitored quality indicators, and their compliance with the EU and Romanian environmental regulations.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, pollution, wastewater discharges monitoring.

Campanie pentru Iluminatul Scolar in Romania
School Lighting Measurements Campaign in Romania
Alexandru-Daniel Vlas, Andy-Alexandru Balazs, Andras Vernes, Dorin Beu, Mircea-Ion Buzdugan

Lighting levels for educational buildings in Romania has evolved in time due to the development of various lighting technologies, from the incandescent to light emitting diodes. The measuring campaign found that the majority of the educational buildings are using fluorescent and LED light sources. Results showed that the majority of the college classrooms have a lower mean illuminance value (119 lx – 243 lx) than the recommended level of the SR-EN 12464-1 of 300 lx. In case of classrooms for adult education (208.88 lx – 413.45 lx), the illuminance levels are below the 500 lx recommendation. The highest mean illuminance level was calculated at Onisifor Ghibu College – 625 lx, which is the result of implementing new state of the art LED technology. Uniformity in all educational buildings is below the 0.6 ratio, revealing uneven light distribution. The colour correlated temperature of the light sources has a wide variation, from 3000 K – 10000 K, indicating that there are no clear instructions on how to choose this light source feature. Colour rendering index of the luminaires is mostly below the 80 Ra values recommended by the norm. This campaign’s audit can be useful for the public authorities in order to have a clear situation of the existing lighting systems and about improvement possibilities in future refurbishment projects.

Keywords: school, lighting, campaign, illuminance

 
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