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  Numarul 3/2019

Volumul 10 (2019), Nr. 3

KERGRID: A Low-Carbon Footprint Building in Western France
Pierrick Mandrou,José Naveteur, David Penhouet, René Sauger, Edouard Cereuil

MORBIHAN ENERGIES carried out an experimental project in designing a building that produces for the electricity grid for its new head office in Vannes, Brittany. It is capable of varying its consumption electric power -- especially in times of high demand -- and can also store or reinject the renewable energy it produces. This project gave birth to the KERGRID building, featuring an area of 3,300 m², in compliance with the low carbon building and PassivHauss labels. A two-storey building made of wood and concrete, it has solar panels spread over the 850 m² of roof space and two micro wind turbines that provide electricity production for the area. EDF R&D (Research and Development) is supporting Morbihan Energies in optimising the operation of its building. In 2017, all-purpose final consumption amounted to 71 kWhfe/m² while solar production amounted to 110 MWh, 63% of which was self-used. All-direct emissions of greenhouse gases amounted to 4.3 kgeqCO2/m².year (14 TeqCO2/year). These figures confirm the high performance of this building.

Replacing the existing thermo-frigo-pump (with pistons compressors) by a new thermo-frigo-pump with variable-speed screw resulted in a 50% saving of energy use!
José Naveteur

Since 1998, EDF R & D provides energy monitoring of an office building (S = 16633m2) in Lyon and is heating and cooling by a thermo frigo pumps on groundwater. In 2014, it was decided to renovate the production of hot and cold and replace: -The Existing thermo frigo pumps (with piston compressors) by new machines with variable speed compressors. -All the water pumps with new variable speed pumps The measures realized average 2015-2017(variable speed compressors), compare to average 1999-2013 (pistons compressors), have shown that -The building consumption was reduced by 37% -The consumption of water pumps 47% -The consumption of thermo frigo pumps lowered by more than 50% and the COP heating + cooling (*) factor improved by 70%!. -The CO2 emissions are also reduced by 50% compared to older the heat pumps. Compared to a gas boiler and chiller solution, the heat pumps with the new machines reduces the CO2 emissions of 83%. - All of these improvements led to a reduction in CO2 emissions of 37% (of the building). This is the only site in France that has measures (before and after replacement) and certainly the only site in Europe.

Certification Systems for Green Buildings in Romania – LEED, BREEAM, Green Homes & the importance of BIM interdisciplinary collaboration in order to achieve energy-efficient projects
Laura Amaiei,Clarissa Ivan

The presentation at this conference will focus on the description of mandatory and optional criteria for obtaining LEED and BREEAM international certifications for green buildings. At the same time, recent research will be presented in the field of green building evaluation and market trends, the benefits of these certifications for the beneficiary, investor and developer, occupancy rates, land value for green buildings and the costs and risks of including a building within sustainable initiatives. A breakdown of legislative requirements and incentives for sustainable construction by the Government will be presented. Subsequently, relevant case studies from Romania in the residential and office buildings that are certified or under certification will be detailed in order to present the constructive details used to obtain this recognition on the market.

Development of Industry 4.0 models and their applicability for BIM
Maximilian Both,Jochen Müller, Björn Kämper

Industry 4.0 (I4.0) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) are representative of the concept of digitisation in different industries. Although both concepts pursue the same goals and apply the same methods, there is no exchange or synchronisation. Investigations of a research project show that I4.0 models are suitable for the description of plant components in building technology and can be integrated into BIM solutions. Weaknesses of BIM in operation can be closed by I4.0 models. The development of I4.0 submodels is a central point of current I4.0 developments. A procedure model has been developed that can be used for deriving and assigning submodels of different assets.

Synthesis of knowledge on utilization of adsorption filters forhealthy indoor environments
Ayse Fidan Altun, Muhsin Kilic

Building occupantsare exposedto many different kinds of pollutants in indoor environments. Ahealthy and comfortable indoor environment isanessentialneed for humans. Air pollution is relatedtomanydeadly diseases such as cancer, respiratory and cardiac diseases. As a result, control of hazardous gases in theindoor air is crucial. The utilization of sorbent filters is a promising technology in reducing the level ofpollutants from indoor air.This study presents a comprehensive reviewofadsorption filtering technology.Thearticlediscussesfactors that influence filter performance, recent technological developments, advantages,limitationsandchallenges.

Some aspects of historical monument buildings central heating
Cornel Muntea

The monument buildings are special buildings which were not originally designed to be heatedto the required parameters nowadays. Old solutions for central heating of such buildings were based on theuse of low pressure steam as a heat, with natural return of condensate and use of cast iron heating radiators,or natural running hot air. In the performance halls, the warm air was introduced at the base of the seats andwas discharged at the top thereof, or was introduced through the channels stipulated in masonry. Churches,most of the time, they were not equipped with heating systems. This work intends to analyze the mainmodern solutions for heating historic monument buildings, that does not affect their character, examplesapplied to some buildings in Romania, the Transilvania County, to which the authors have had importantcontributions .

Framework for a transient energy-related occupant behaviour agent-based model
Jakub Dziedzic,Da Yan, Vojislav Novakovic

Simulation of occupant behaviour (OB) is a topic considered to be crucial for further advancement in building performance simulation (BPS). Previous (statistical andstochastic) approaches in attempting to re-create in-building human activities were not sufficient to capture subtle activity changes with significant influence on building energy performance. Development of an occupant behaviour agent-based model seems to be a promising direction because such an approach allows deploying a time-dependent, reactive model. The main purpose of the agent will be its presence in the simulated thermal environment and its ability to react once the thermal conditions are outside its established thermal comfort zone. Herein, the agent model has to provide a personification of its thermal comfort condition. To introduce such features for OB simulations in BPS, a new model framework was introduced. It will enable probing of the simulated state of thermal conditions and the “sensing” of it. If conditions are inside the required limits of thermal comfort, the agent will not react. Otherwise, if the state of the agent’s thermal comfort crosses its threshold values, it will try to adjust its thermal conditions using local adjustment possibilities, e.g. simulated adjustment of the set-point. The fundamental input data for this agent model can be obtained by use of the depthregistration camera for direct observation of occupants. Continued monitoring of occupant reactions in various thermal conditions will be a foundation for the development of the occupants' thermal profiles. Storage and compilation of such information will contribute to the detection of the parameters that are mandatory for the development of the transient energy-related occupant behaviour agent-based model

A new test room for indoor environmental quality analysis
Giulia Alessio, Angelo Zarrella ,Antonino Di Bella, Michele De Carli

A new test room for IEQ analysis is under construction at the University of Padova. The CORE-CARE Laboratory (COntrolledRoom for building Environment Comfort Assessment and subjective human Response Evaluation)is a test room of about 18m2equipped with radiant systems on the ceiling, on the floor and onall the walls, except for the area of the windows. Each surface isindependently controlled, thus enabling to reproduce a room with one or more cold or warm external surfacesand at the same time a heating or cooling surface.The room is also provided with fresh air with controlled flow rate, supply temperature and relative humidity.At first the test roomwill be used to evaluate, through questionnaires,psychological and productivity tests,the acceptability of defined factors of localthermaldiscomfort.Not only thermal comfort will be studied, but also perceived air quality,acoustic and lighting aspects will be considered as well. In the present work, the first steps of the set-up of thetest room are presented, from the design phase to the building up, along with a brief presentation of the future research activities.

A Supermarket Eco-Efficientization
Gratiela Tarlea, Valentin Draghici, Mioara Vinceriuc

This article proposes to design and analyse from an energy and ecological efficiency point of view a refrigeration application in the commercial area, related to the cooling consumers in a supermarket. The fields of use of the cooling agent are various, from commercial refrigeration equipment up to naval refrigeration equipment, etc.The present paper aims at dimensioning a refrigeration plant with mechanical vapour compression in one step and choosing the optimal solution from an ecological point of view (GWP-TEWI) and energy efficiency COP. The selected refrigerant is R448 because of its higher C.O.P., lower electricity consumption and lower GWP being in line with EU legislation. Compared to other refrigerants (R404a, R449a) it has the lowest GWP and the highest COP. The composition of R448 is a mixture of ecological halogenated freons R134a, R125, R32a, R1234ze and R1234yf. To simulate and compare refrigerants thermodynamic proprieties The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) - Refprop version 8.0, 2007 was used. In the project, modern design methods were applied using specialized softwares. The refrigerant recommended in the Commercial Cooling System is R448 a. This agent was chosen because it is part of the ecological refrigerant category, being recommended on average for cooling and for low energy consumption. The composition of this agent is a mixture of ecological halogenated freons R134a, R125, R32a, R1234ze and R1234yf.

LISCOOL – Smart air-conditioning with cold storage as flexibility provider for automated demand response and virtual power plant supported by cloud based system
Shuji Furui, Rui Fonseca, Ryoh Masuda, Kouichi Nakagawa, Shuuji Fujimoto, Teppei Seguchi, Takuya Nakao, Nobuki Matsui

This paper describes the main progresses of the LISCOOL – Lisbon Cool energy project. It aims to implement and demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of air conditioning systems as flexibility providers to different operators on the electricity markets. It promotes consumers as active participants on energy trading and network management, by taking advantage of the flexible load of the AC Systems, providing a suitable solution for large scale deployment of renewable energy sources (RES).

The influence of external air supply to air-conditioning systems with fan coil units on the design set-points and the energy consumption
Aleksandra Przydróżna, Edward Przydróżny

Air-conditioning systems with fan coil units are used in multi-room buildings to adjust air parameters in many rooms with different thermal loads and various uses. These systems are commonly used to set the internal conditions in hotel rooms, offices, small retail stores in shopping centres and others. In fan coil units, the circulating air is treated to ensure that the design set-points are adjusted to the instantaneous heat loads in individual rooms. This treatment is individually controlled by temperature s ignals from individual rooms. As a result, at a given instance, the circulating air may be heated in some rooms, whilst cooled in the remaining. In this case, the central air treatment affects the overall energy demand for HVAC system. Additionally, the method of external air supply to air-conditioned rooms (direct or through fan coil units) affects both the treated external air set-point and the design parameters of fan coil units.In the paper, we discuss the methods of supplying the external air to air-conditioned rooms. We emphasise how each method influences the design set-points of the centrally-treated air, the size and duty points of fan coil units and the overall energy demand for the HVAC system under investigation.

Energy-efficient hybrid dual-duct dual-fan systems
Edward Przydróżny, Aleksandra Przydróżna

Reduction of energy demand for air treatment in dual-duct systems proves particularly challenging, due to simultaneous thermal treatment of two airflows with significantly varying temperature set-points. In pursuit of substantial energy savings for HVAC, we propose new hybrid dual-duct systems, which combine advantages of both extract air recirculation and heat recovery from exhaust air. To ensure energy-efficient performance of our hybrid systems, we propose appropriate technological design solutions for thermal treatment and automatic control. We also resolve problems caused by simultaneous use of heat recovery and air recirculation. The paper presents our technological solution for the hybrid dual-duct dual-fan system with a two-stage reduction of energy demand and our dedicated strategy for the system automatic control. Finally, we perform dynamic simulations of the proposed hybrid system under two-shift occupancy of ventilated rooms to quantify expected annual energy savings.

Comparative study on the electrical power consumption versus monitoring for an outdoor ice rink
Gianni Flamaropol, Grațiela Maria Țârlea, Elena Camelia Tamaş, Dragoș Hera

Our paper refers to the analysis of the variation in electricity consumption made by a removable, seasonally ice rink installed outside of a commercial building. The electricity consumption of the ice-skating installation was monitored for about six months between 2016 and 2017, during November and March period of skating season. It is described the ice rink refrigeration plant which is one with indirect mechanical compression in one step using a R134a refrigerant agent and a 30% ethylene glycol solution as a secondary agent. It is compared and analyzed the current electricity consumption with the one obtained by simulating the operation of the refrigeration plant in ideal conditions using R134a refrigerants. A comparison of the electricity consumption is made between simulating the operation of the refrigeration plant using refrigerant R134a or R410a or R507a.

Keywords: monitoring, skating rink temperature, energy performances, outdoor skating rink, analysis

Evaluation of the building envelope to achieve comfort standards in an office building in Izmir
Ayse Sena Cildir, Ayca Tokuc

The rapid increase in the world energy use causes the depletion of various resources and has severe environmental impacts such as global warming and climate change. In this context, one of the measures taken throughout Europe is “nearly zero energy building”. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a passive design strategy, the design of the building envelope in reaching the comfort standards of an office building in Izmir. The analysis method is to investigate selected variables in a hypothetical office building within the context of reaching a nearly zero energy building via building energy simulation. Four scenarios were modeled included changing the wall-window ratios of façades, changing the window glass type, adding insulation material to opaque building components, and adding shading elements to the facades respectively. Finally, the scenarios are discussed through yearly analyses of heating and cooling loads. The results show that the passive strategies that aim to decrease the cooling loads cause higher reductions in the energy demand of the building in Izmir. Consequently reaching a nearly zero energy office building is not feasible with the evaluated passive design strategies; however they can play a significant role in decreasing the total energy consumption of the building

Eliminating the Design-Operation Energy Gap: A Case Study on Developing a University Level Course
BlakeWentz, Timothy Wentz

The global community has reached a consensus on the need to address global warming through the ratification of the Paris Accord (2015). Achieving the goals set forth in the Paris Accord will necessitate a worldwide initiative to design, construct, operate and maintain Net Zero Energy(NZE) Buildings. Creating a new generation of NZE buildings will require the elimination of the historical “energy gap” between a building’s design and its operation. This paper describes the development of a new college-level course at the Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE) that applies ASHRAE’s Building Energy Quotient certification program to eliminate the energy gap by identifying, quantifying and accounting for the energy gap. The course is a critical step in trainingthe next generation of industry leaders, in a multi-disciplinary environment, if NZE Buildings are to be a viable option for our industry.

Relating forms and materials of traditional and contemporary building types to indoor and outdoor air temperatures for sustainable development in Okigwe, Nigeria
Marcellinus Okafor, Ikechukwu Onyegiri

This paper relates forms and materials of traditional and contemporary building types to indoor and outdoor air temperatures in Okigwe, Nigeria, with a view to developing design criteria for minimum consumption of energy for maximum comfort. Data on indoor air temperature were collected from nine purposively sampled buildingsmonitored simultaneously on hourly basis for a year (1 Nov 2015 - 31 Oct 2016), using Tinytag Explorer Data Loggers. The mean annual indoor air temperature value of traditional building types was 28.20C, contemporary building types 28.70C and mean annual outdoor air temperature value was 29.00C.The mean daily values of indoor air temperature of both building types were significantly different (z = 1.74, p =0.04). Contrastingly, there were no significant differences between the outdoor and indoor temperature values of traditional building types [t (20) = 1.25, p = 0.22], and contemporary building types [t(20) = 0.53, p = 0.60]. The forms and materials of traditional building types ensure reduction in energy and consumption patternand provide acceptable indoor thermal environment. The adaptation of its forms and materials will aid in the conceptualisation of design criteria for sustainable development strategies in Nigeria and other developing nations.

Air-Water Heat-P ump with Low GWP Refrigerant
Mioara Vinceriuc, Gratiela Tarlea, Ana Patricia Tarlea

As a result of the new legislative regulation on an international level regarding the refrigerants, new ecological alternatives which comply with the Global Warming Potential (GWP) guidelines must be found in the following years. This paper is a study case focused on the ecological and energy – efficiency aspects of a water-air heat pump. In this study, comparisons between R134a, MV3T and R1234yf were made. The theoretical study analyzes a one stage refrigeration system that currently works with R 134a. The comparative study of these facilities followed the coefficient of performance of a plant and also the TEWI factor (Total Equivalent Warming Impact – in respect with EN 378-1). Energy efficiency is directly related to global warming and greenhouse gases emissions has focused on water-air heat pump ecological and energy - efficiency study case.

Heat recovery in ventilation systems -waste heat use or renewable energy
Claus Händel

For as long as discussions about renewable energies have been ongoing, definitions and chargeability have been discussed in various technical standards and legal regulations.Practically each document defines something differently and there is no uniform procedure especially in the area of air conditioning and ventilation technologies.This paper shows differences between heat recovery and waste heat use and defines the renewable share of heat and cold recovery in ventilation units. A definition of renewable energies based on a primary energy approach would allow a fully technology neutralcalculation of renewable shares and give a clarity to the political direction of travel.

Questionnaire’s Elaboration and application to the contribution at knowledge of certificate LEED’s application at Brazil with based on case studies.
Clélia Mendonça de Moraes

The sustainable building with LEED Certification search the better thermal comfort adaptation to their users. This research has analysed the impact of LEED certification at first Brazilian enterprises, which receives the seal of sustainable building. It is understandable that, initially, there was restrictions about the use in another reality of the American buildings. The questionnaire developed was distributed in XX national case studies. Note that the labour market must be prepared to the certification; otherwise, it will be difficult to achieve the final goal, which is being a sustainable building. The results obtained to confirm that LEED certification need to move forward in the indoor environment studies to buildings located in regions with tropical altitude climate with abrupt changes of temperature. The final results of questionnaire allows to obtain an evaluation of standard measures of an ideal temperature to the buildings, establishing the limit among comfort zones of human metabolism, proposing comfort model adaptive to a country with a wide latitudinal variation, as in Brazil.

New method of increasing building efficiency
Andrei Preda, Razvan-Stefan Popescu

Increasing the comfort of a residential building depends a lot on how well the structure of resistance is known and the materials it is made of, but also the possible stages of degradation and the causes that led to them. One of the best performing procedures to determine some of the causes of degradation is thermal imaging known as thermography.The thermography results for the residential building are compared with the legal indices and then the conclusions are drawn, followed by establishing the methods and the techniques of approach for its thermal recovery. Thermography has a very long history, although its use has increased with the commercial and industrial applications of the past forty years.

Andreea Irina Baran, Teodor Dorin Dumitru Mateescu, Razvan Silviu Luciu

Correlated with EU directives, the national energy strategy provides important measures in order to improve energy efficiency in buildings and related facilities, as well as using advanced technologies and materias and by promoting appropriate solutions and equipment in full knowledge of the peculiarities and applicability limits for different categories of requirements, with maximum functional and energy efficiency. Since it is known that in the energy balance the biggest share is in thermal energy, it is appropriate to say that continuous efforts in the optimization of conventional fuel saving solutions and intense promotion of renewable energies is highly justified. Also taking into account the major energy crisis, foreseeable for the global economy, we can say that there is a need for a series of research and development strategies in terms of energy performance, transport and storage. The use of renewable energy forms in the cooling and heating systems, as well as the „waste heat” resulted from different processes is consistent with sustainable development and helps reduce the consumption and emissions of conventional fuels. Plant systems equipped with heat pumps with mechanical vapor compression require the existence of an additional source with a low thermal potential, normally obtained from the natural environment. For example, the additional source can be arranged in line with the utilization of the residual heat from the system in self-compensating regime, when the system is designed to heat the space during the cold season and cool it during summer. In this case, the heat surplus from the cooling operation is gathered in seasonal storage and provides the necessary intake for heating, resulting the autonomy and independence of the system regardless the natural thermal resources. Replacing the usual secondary agent with nanofluids increases heat transfer by significantly increasing the convective transfer coefficient and also the storage of thermal energy in phase-change materials is a method that has experienced significant development in recent years, being attractive in terms of the large amount of thermal energy accumulated by the storage medium per unit volume at constant temperature.

Rehabilitation of the Utility Spaces and Boiler Room - Monnaie Royal Theatre
Laura Troi, Ioan Silviu Dobosi, Stefan Duna, Dragoș Mihăilă, Daniel Teodorescu, Alexandru Hordila

The building used for workshops and administrative services at the Monnaie Royal Theatre in Brussels was subjected to complete renovation, in an effort to make the work conditions for the administrative and technical staff at the theatre more comfortable, and the building more conform to fire safety regulations and more energy efficient.The objective of energy efficiency was achieved by renovation of the infrastructure of installations : central heating and cooling, water supply, sewage and gas pipes, electrical (power and control of equipment’s, fire detection, lighting, and BMS (Building Management System) integration. Two major areas were assigned as utility rooms (in the basement) and the boiler room (on the roof , 4th floor).

Special Engineering Techniques - Ecole Des Trèfles
Dragos Mihailă, Laura Troi, Ioan Silviu Dobosi, Stefan Duna, Daniel Teodorescu, Alexandru Hordila

This paper presents the challenges encountered in designing and planning an educational building complex in order to have a very low energy standard and thus reaching the exemplary building objectives. The case study building is part of the Exemplary Buildings program launched by the Brussels-Capital Region, through which the building sector is encouraged to produce sustainable buildings. This project addresses the sustainability topic in an important building category, as the educational environment is and always will be a central part of everyone’s life. The paper aims at showing the technical solutions proposed by the architects and design engineers towards achieving high energy performance, sustainability, good water and waste management and offering at the same time high standard conditions to the building users, architectural quality and economic efficiency.

Recovery of waste heat from the sewer system
Dominika Juhošová, Jana Peráčková

In the first part of my article I would like to introduce the possibilities of the recovery of waste heat from the sewer system and react to the answer of minimalism of the demand of energy needed for the preparation of domestic hot water. The recovery of waste heat from the sewer system outside of building is possible using a heat pump in combination of heat exchanger located in sewerage and the recovery of waste heat of sewer system inside of building is possible using a heat from waste water through a heat exchanger to direct preheating of cold water. The second part is dedicated to design of alternative solutions of the recovery of waste heat from the sewer system in the object of multifunction sports facility which include complete project documentation of the sport complex with application of heat exchanger to direct preheating of cold water in shower. The efficiency of regenerative systems and the saving of hot water was determined thanks to the experimental observation executed under laboratory conditions. The main point of this article is to introduce the possibilities of the recovery of waste heat from sewer system, apply them in the object of multifunction sport complex and review the energy and economicgefficiency.

Mapping digital transformation in building performance assessment and management–commercial activities for the operation phase
Andrei Vladimir Lițiu,Stijn Verbeke, Jakob Hahn, Davor Stjelja, Ken Dooley, Nejc Brelih-Wasowski, Ivo Martinac,Niklas Lavesson,Jonas Gräslund, PerOlaIsaksson,David Hälleberg, Pär Carling

Having in mind both the possibilities (e.g. automatic analysis of complex data to increase building performance and automationof difficult/dangerous/repetitive traditionally human tasks using machine learning/data mining/artificial intelligence and sensors) and challenges (e.g. regarding: privacy, security, safety), themain aim is developing an approach to structurethe various commercial activities, for the time being in a non-comprehensive manner, related to the digital transformation of the built environmentand assess the current state of technologyin terms of products, services andsolutions.

From Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) to Operational Energy Policies and Measures for the City of Tomorrow
Irina Rotaru, Mihai Husch

Technology, mobility and the large availability of data have dramatically changed values, expectations, approaches and jobs as well as the ways of understanding, interacting, living and working of individuals and communities. Therefore a more comprehensive perspective and new ways of thinking, designing, planning and managing sites are urgently needed. Confronted with incresed exigencies in the conditions of reduced resources and ever growing levels of complexity and instability, public administrations are desperately calling for help. Based on the innovations developed, tested and promoted in the framework of Civitas PROSPERITY European Project (focused on enhancing the adoption and efficiency of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans), the present contribution is extrapolating this experience offering insights on public capacity building and on the sustainable preparation and implementation of various urban policies and measures and especially of the ones regarding energy efficiency. The latter are being regarded from a comprehensive, integrated and inclusive perspective, being considered essential for the wealth of a city and of its inhabitants.

Wind energy and environment
Gabriela LUNGESCU, Raluca GHERASIM, Stefan BURCHILA, Catalin LUNGU, Viorel SERBAN

For mankind to be able to continue life at a high level of comfort and satisfaction, first of all it is necessary to provide a significant amount of energy. Electrical and mechanical energy as well as thermal energy in the form of heat or domestic hot water over 75% is ensured by combustion of fossil fuels, which generates a large amount of gaseous and solid pollutants.In the last decades, mankind has searched for new sources of primary energy that, transformed into electricity or heat, do not pollute the environment, under the generic name of renewable energy.Currently, the most used renewable energy source is wind energy, which has grown, mainly due to the financial support policies adopted in most countries in the world.Making an onshore / offshore wind turbine involves a series of energy-consuming activities, both in wind turbine components manufacturing and building on a given location. Wind turbines also affect the environment, directly and indirectly throughout their life cycle. In addition, the decommissioning of these colossi with growth tendencies has a number of difficulties, especially for offshore winds, generating enormous quantities of waste.Depending on the type of turbine and its power, the work involves research, design, manufacturing and experimentation.These activities, as well as the actual realization of wind turbines in the current technology, are energy consuming and produce a series of waste in fuctoning and especially decommissioning.In this paper, an assessment of the embodiedenergy and energy produced by a wind turbine at an onshore site is made.

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